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Patients with challenging behaviors will always be part of medical practice. Physicians should be aware of their reactions and feelings towards a patient (known in psychiatry as countertransference), as they can increase physician stress and interfere with providing optimal care. Finding effective ways to work with difficult patients will avoid these outcomes.
Most physicians are resilient, but they can feel overwhelmed under certain circumstances. According to Scudder and Shanafelt, a physician’s sense of well-being is influenced by several factors, including feelings of control in the workplace. It is easy to imagine how one or more difficult patients can create a sense of overwhelming demand and loss of control.
These tips can help maintain a sense of control and improve interactions with patients:
Have a plan for effective communication. Not having a plan for communicating in a difficult situation can contribute to loss of control in a hectic schedule that is already stretched to its limits. Practicing responses with a colleague for especially difficult patients or using a team approach can be helpful. Remaining compassionate while setting boundaries will result in the best outcome for the patient and physician.
Stop to analyze the situation. One of the tenets of cognitive-behavioral therapy is recognizing that negative thoughts can quickly take us down a dangerous path. Feeling angry and resentful without stopping to think and reflect on the causes can lead to the physician feeling victimized (just like many difficult patients feel).
It is important to step back and think, not just feel. While difficult patients present in different ways, all are reacting to losing control of their situation and want support. During a difficult interaction with a patient, pause to consider, “Why is he behaving this way? Is he afraid? Does he feel that no one cares?”
When a patient verbally attacks beyond what is appropriate, recognize that this is probably due less to anything the physician did than to the patient’s internal issues. Identifying the driver of a patient’s behavior makes it easier to control our own emotions.
Practice empathy. Difficult patients usually have something in their background that can help explain their inappropriate behavior, such as a lack of parental support or abuse. Being open to hearing their story facilitates an empathetic connection.
Dr. Schuermeyer is Director of Psycho-Oncology, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology. Dr. Falcone is staff in the Epilepsy Center, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology. Dr. Franco is staff in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychology.
This abridged article originally appeared in Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine and can be read in full here.